Friday, January 22, 2016

Time & Uncertainty (2nd post: "What kind of game is cyber security investment?")

Summary: Time and uncertainty are essential features of any model of the "game of cyber security".  Models that do not include them as central features are not fit for purpose.  But, yes, they do make life more difficult for modelers and their audiences. While I make the case that both are essential, I leave open the question as to what is the most parsimonious method or treatment.

Tuesday, January 19, 2016

What kind of game is cyber security investment? (post #1 of ?)

This is first in a series of blog posts where I think out loud as I build a paper for WEIS 2016, and also a component for my dissertation.

The focus is on "investment" broadly defined.  This means money invested in people, tools, infrastructure, processes, methods, know-how, etc.  It also means architectural commitments that shape the business, technical, legal, or social aspects of cyber security for a given person or organization.  All these investments provide the foundation for what a person or organization is able to do (i.e. their "capabilities") and the means of executing day-to-day tasks ("routines", "processes", "practices", etc.).

If cyber security investment is a strategic game between attackers and defenders, and among defenders, then what kind of game is it?


In simple terms, people tend to think of cyber security investment as being one of (at least) five types of games:

  1. An optimization game, where each player finds the optimal level of spending (or investment) to minimize costs (or losses).  This view is favored by Neo-classical Economists and most Game Theorists.
  2. A collective wisdom game, where the collective searching/testing activities of players leads to the emergence of a "collective wisdom" (a.k.a. "best practices") that everyone can then imitate. This view is favored by many industry consultants and policy makers.
  3. A maturity game, where all players follow a developmental path from immature to mature, and both individual and collective results are improved along the way.  This view is favored by many industry consultants.
  4. A carrots-and-sticks game, where players chose actions that balance rewards ("carrots") with punishments ("sticks") in the context of their other goals, resources, inclinations, habits, etc.  This view is favored by some Institutional Economists, and some researchers in Law and Public Policy.  It is also favored by many people involved in regulation/compliance/assurance. 
  5. A co-evolution game, where the "landscape" of player payoffs and possible "moves" is constantly shifting and overall behavior subject to surprises and genuine novelty.  This view is favored by some researchers who employ methods or models from Complexity Science or Computational Social Science.  This view is also a favorite of hipsters and "thought leaders", though they use it as metaphor rather than as a real foundation for research or innovation.
But what kind of game is cyber security, really?  How can we know?

These questions matter because, depending on the game type, the innovation strategies will be very different:
  1. If cyber security is an optimization game, then we need to focus on methods that will help each player do the optimization, and to remove disincentives for making optimal investments.
  2. If cyber security is a collective wisdom game, then we need to focus on identifying the "best practices" and to promote their wide-spread adoption.
  3. If cyber security is a maturity game, then we need to focus on the barriers to increasing maturity, and to methods that help each player map their path from "here" to "there" in terms of maturity.
  4. If cyber security is a carrots-and-sticks game, then we need to find the right combination of carrots and sticks, and to tune their implementation.
  5. Finally, if cyber security is a co-evolution game, then we need to focus on agility, rapid learning, and systemic innovation. Also, we should probably NOT do some of the strategies listed in 1) through 4), especially if they create rigidity and fragility in the co-evolutionary process, which is the opposite of what is needed.

Thursday, January 14, 2016

How fast does the space of possibilities expand? (replicating Tria, et al 2014)

How fast does the space of possibilities expand?  This question is explored in the following paper (free download):

From the abstract:
Novelties are a familiar part of daily life. They are also fundamental to the evolution of biological systems, human society, and technology. By opening new possibilities, one novelty can pave the way for others in a process that Kauffman has called “expanding the adjacent possible”. The dynamics of correlated novelties, however, have yet to be quantified empirically or modeled mathematically. Here we propose a simple mathematical model that mimics the process of exploring a physical, biological, or conceptual space that enlarges whenever a novelty occurs. The model, a generalization of Polya's urn, predicts statistical laws for the rate at which novelties happen (Heaps' law) and for the probability distribution on the space explored (Zipf's law), as well as signatures of the process by which one novelty sets the stage for another.
I've written a NetLogo program to replicate their model, available here.  The code for the model is quite simple.  A majority of my code is for a "pretty layout", which is a schematic version of a "top-down view" of the urn.  Here's a video of a single run

Full screen with controls. (click to enlarge)
The charts on the top and center right show the frequency distribution by ball type (a.k.a. "color").  These are log-log plots, so a straight line (declining) is signature of a power law distribution, while a gradually curving (concave) is signature of lognormal or similar distribution with somewhat thinner tail.  Sharply declining curve is signature of a thin tailed distribution such as Gaussian.

So what?

This model will be useful in my dissertation because I need mechanisms to endogenously add novelty -- i.e. expand the possibility space based on the actions of agents in the simulated world, and not simply as external "shocks".

This is essential for modeling cyber security because some people claim that quantitative risk management is impossible in principle because of intelligent adversaries who can generate and exploit novel strategies and capabilities.

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Institutional Innovation in Contested Territory: Quantified Cyber Security and Risk

Say you are an entrepreneurial sort of person who wants to really change the world of cyber security. Problem: nobody seems to know where the game-changing innovation is going to come from.  Is it technology?  Is it economics?  Is it law and policy? Is it sociology? Maybe combination, but what? And in what sequence?

If you aim for institutional innovation, then at some point you are going to need to take sides in the great "Quant vs. Non-quant" debate:
  • Can cyber security and risk be quantified? 
  • If "yes", how can quantitative information be used to realize security to significantly improve outcomes?
Whether you choose Quant or Non-quant, you will need some tools and methods to advance the state of the art.  But how do you know if you are choosing the right tools, and using them well?  (Think about the difference between Numerology and Calculus as they might be applied to physics of motion.)

Whoever makes sufficient progress toward workable solutions will "win", in the sense of getting wide-spread adoption, even if the other is "better" in some objective sense (i.e. "in the long run").

I examine this innovation race in a book chapter (draft). The book will probably come out in 2016.

"The focus of this chapter is on how the thoughts and actions of actors coevolve when they are actively engaged in institutional innovation. Specifically: How do innovators take meaningful action when they are relatively ‘blind’ regarding most feasible or desirable paths of innovation? Our thesis is that innovators use knowledge artifacts – e.g. dictionaries, taxonomies, conceptual frameworks, formal procedures, digital information systems, tools, instruments, etc. – as cognitive and social scaffolding to support iterative refinement and development of partially developed ideas. We will use the case of institutional innovation in cyber security as a way to explore these questions in some detail, including a computational model of innovation."
Your feedback, comments, and questions would be most welcome.

The computational model used is called "Percolation Models of Innovation".  Here is the NetLogo code of the model used in the book chapter.   Below are some figures from the book chapter.

Innovation as percolation. Progress moves from bottom to top. Each column is a "technology",
and neighboring columns are closely related.  This version (S&V 2005) only models
rate of progress and distribution of "sizes", not anything about the technology or
trajectory of innovation.
A screen shot of the user interface.  Three different models can be selected (upper left).

Friday, January 8, 2016

Complex dynamics in learning complicated games (replicating Galla & Farmer 2012)

I have written a NetLogo version of the random game model of Galla & Farmer (2012) (free download).  It has been uploaded to the NetLogo community library and should appear in a day or so.  Read on if you are interested in Game Theory, esp. learning models and computational methods.

Chaotic dynamics in a complicated game. The payoffs are negatively correlated (-0.7) and memory for learning is long (alpha ≈ 0). Notice the squiggly lines in the time series plots (lower right). Each line is probability for a given move.
If the game were in equilibrium, these lines would be flat. (click for larger image)
Download the .nlogo file 
Download NetLogo (Win, Mac, Linux)